Varieties of Feminisms in Contemporary China: Local Reception and Reinvention of Liberal Feminism in Ford Foundation Projects. By: Yang, R. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society. Fall2020, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p510-533. 24p.

This article explores how liberal feminism has been received and hybridized with local feminisms in post-socialist China. Based on interviews and documents from four Ford Foundation projects, the results show how local actors appropriated elements from three strands of feminism: liberal, socialist, and cultural. Conflicts among these strands were reconciled by de-emphasizing the structural origins of gender inequality and putting impetus for change on individual women. The human rights-based understandings of gender equality are thereby converted into women’s obligation to improve their “quality” and exercise their legal rights, which ignores intersectional disadvantages confronting rural women.