To Venture or Not to Venture? Gender Stereotyping and Women's Entrepreneurial Aspirations. By: BarNir, Anat. Sex Roles. Jul2021, Vol. 85 Issue 1/2, p57-72. 16p. 5 Charts.

The objective of the present paper is to explore the relationship between perceived gender stereotyping and women’s entrepreneurial aspirations. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was based on a sample of 64 U.S. undergraduate students and focused on the direct and indirect roles of perceived gender stereotyping on entrepreneurial aspirations. Study 2 was based on a sample of 100 mostly working U.S. graduate students and focused on venture preferences and their moderators. Findings establish that experiencing gender stereotypes is not only negatively associated with women’s entrepreneurial aspirations, but also interferes with the positive influence of self-efficacy and prior entrepreneurial exposure on women’s entrepreneurial aspirations. Results also show that perceived gender stereotyping affects the type of ventures women prefer to start, compelling women away from more agentic type growth-oriented ventures and toward more communal type ventures. The effects of moderators were explored showing that the presence of men as role models and in the workplace are both associated with lower likelihood that the potential woman entrepreneur will pursue growth ventures. Overall, the research supports the notion that stereotype threat constitutes a useful lens to view women’s participation in entrepreneurship.