Dallos, Andrea; Kovács, Judit. Journal of Family Issues. Jan2021, Vol. 42 Issue 1, p110-135. 26p.

The current study approaches gender in a frame of social and biological dimensions. A vignette study was conducted in Hungary in which we explored people’s perceptions regarding male or female actors behaving in a modern or in a traditional way in a work–family conflict (caring for a sick child). Respondents (N = 297) evaluated the femininity and masculinity of the actor and the appropriateness of his/her choice. We found that modern gender role behavior triggers approval. Biological sex (male or female actor) and social role of the actor influenced perceptions regarding femininity, but masculinity evaluations were solely based on social role. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of asymmetries in the perceptions of female and male gender role vanguards: modern males are seen similar to traditional females, but similar conflation is not present in the case of modern females. As a consequence, strict gender role expectations toward males work against social changes to a fairer share of family labor.