Engeman, C., & Burman, S. (2022). Signs of the gender revolution's second phase? Historical and cross‐national development of fathers' leave provisions. Social Policy & Administration.

In only a few decades, workplace leave for fathers has grown from a few days of paternity leave to several months of leave to bond with their children. Historically, some reforms are striking for the signals they send about gender norms of care. In this paper, we argue there are five distinct types of fathers’ leave that differ in their potential messages about fatherhood. Using new and original measures, we examine the development of each leave type, total leave provisions and the duration of well-paid leave across 23 affluent democracies over the last half century. We find that welfare states have increasingly established well-paid and non-transferable leave provisions promoted by family policy experts, but such provisions remain underfunded. Transferable parental leave entitlements, when offered, are typically more generous. We also find countries vary but are historically consistent in how they distribute benefits based on fathers’ earnings. Overall, this presents indicators that lay necessary groundwork for advancements in comparative policy analysis.