Sexual Orientation and Race Intersectionally Reduce the Perceived Gendered Nature of Normative Stereotypes in the United States. By: Hudson, Sa-kiera T. J. and Ghani, Asma. 2024. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Vol. 48 Issue 1, p56-79.

There is substantial research on the nature of gender prescriptive and proscriptive stereotypes. However, there has been relatively little work on whether these normative stereotypes are equally attributed to men and women of different identities. Across two studies (total N = 928), we assessed the extent to which stereotypes are prescribed and proscribed for men and women of different sexual orientations (Study 1) and races (Study 2) in the United States. We asked participants to rate the desirability of possessing 70 traits based on an “average American.” Although results showed the persistence of gender normative stereotypes in society, the normative nature of these stereotypes was influenced by sexual orientation and race. There was strong evidence of a heterocentric bias, as normative stereotypes of generic men and women most closely aligned with those of straight men and women. There was weaker evidence of a Eurocentric bias. Furthermore, observed gender differences in normative stereotypes were significantly smaller for sexually- and racially-minoritized targets compared to straight and White targets. These findings combined suggest that the practices and policies that attempt to address gender inequality might not be as effective for people with multiply-marginalized identities that face distinctly different patterns of normative pressures.