Servant leadership, leader gender, and team gender role: Testing a female advantage in a cascading model of performance. By: Lemoine, G. James; Blum, Terry C. Personnel Psychology. Spring2021, Vol. 74 Issue 1, p3-28. 26p.

We integrate the theory of gender role congruity with extant research on servant leadership to propose and test a moderated process model in which we hypothesize that servant leadership’s effects on outcomes are stronger when implemented by women, and when it takes place within teams high in feminine gender role composition. Specifically, we theorize that servant leadership’s communal emphases on stakeholders and relationships align with female role prototypes, which should lead to female advantages for job performance through the proposed serial mediators of prosocial motivation and follower servant leadership behaviors. We test this moderated, serial‐mediation model in a temporally lagged field study with a multi‐organizational sample including 109 teams. We find evidence that the mediated process model is moderated at the first stage such that in teams higher in feminine gender role composition, servant leadership has greater direct effects on prosocial motivation, as well as indirect effects on follower servant leadership and performance. We do not find support for our hypothesis that a similar moderated effect would emerge for leader sex; instead, we find that the effect of servant leadership on follower servant leadership, and subsequently to performance, is stronger for women leaders than it is for men. The implications of these findings for the servant leadership and role congruity literatures are discussed.