Stefanidis, A., King-Sears, M. E., & Kyriakidou, N. (2021). School bells are ringing, but can parents attend? Responses from employed parents of children with SEND. Community, Work & Family, 1-20.

This study’s purpose is to examine the work-family conflict of employedparents of children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND)and those parents’ engagement in the schooling of their children. Prior tothe COVID-19 outbreak, 206 parents from the United Kingdom completed aquestionnaire about their school engagement and their work-family strain.Response data were examined employing descriptive and correlation analyses,as well as hierarchical moderated regression. Findings reveal that the higherthe parents’ work-family conflict, the lower their school engagement.Moreover, the age of children with SEND moderates the relationship betweenemployed parents’ work-family conflict and engagement in their children’sschooling. Specifically, for parents with younger children, the negativeimpact of work-family conflict on parental school engagement is not asprevalent as it is for those with older-aged children. Drawing on Hobfoll’sconservation of resources theory, we explore parents’ dilemma when theydetermine where to expend their limited reservoir of resources. Becausechildren with SEND benefit in multiple ways when their parents are engaged intheir schooling, we provide recommendations regarding how schools andorganizations can operate to promote parental school engagement.