Relationship between parental involvement and emotional well‐being in Chinese left‐behind children: A moderated mediation model. By: Chen, Shi‐Min; Gao, Liang; Lin, Shi‐Hui and Zhang, Ying. 2024. Family Relations. Vol. 73 Issue 2, p1346-1361.

Objective: The goal was to examine (a) how parental involvement affects mental health in left‐behind children (LBC), and (b) how the interaction effect of parental involvement and grandparent involvement affects mental health in LBC. Background: Given the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China, a substantial number of rural laborers have migrated to cities to earn a living. However, it is difficult for many children to stay with their parents and they have to be left behind. Methods: The sample consisted of 309left‐behind children who had grandparents to care for them. The participants completed the Inventory of Father Involvement, Inventory of Mother Involvement, Inventory of Closest Grandparent Involvement, Needs Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Emotional Experience of Well‐being Questionnaire. Results: Needs satisfaction mediated the effect of father involvement on emotionalwell‐being (EWB) and the effect of mother involvement on EWB in LBC. The closest grandparent involvement of LBC moderated the effect of mother involvement on needs satisfaction, but it did not moderate the effect of father involvement on needs satisfaction. The closest grandparent involvement of LBC moderated the indirect effect of mother involvement on EWB through needs satisfaction. Conclusions: Needs satisfaction is an essential mediator between parental involvement and EWB. Grandparental involvement of LBC plays a complementary role in mother involvement. Their interaction effect facilitates the fulfilment of needs, and improves their EWB in LBC. Implications: The mental health of LBC can be improved by helping their mothers and grandparents to meet various needs of LBC.