Kisbu, Y., Akçinar, B., Kuşcul, G. H., Bozok, M., Turunç, G., & Fişek, G. (2022). Protective and risk factors associated with involved fatherhood in a traditional culture.

Consistent with ecological systems theory and the heuristicmodel of parental behavior dynamics, the current study is focused on bothindividual and contextual factors that determine fatherhood involvement inthe context of a traditional patriarchal culture. Background: Father–childinteraction during the early childhood period is a salient factor inpredicting later child outcomes. However, studies on antecedents of involvedfatherhood are scarce, mostly concentrated on one aspect of fatheringbehavior, and limited to few cultural contexts. Method: Data were collectedfrom a representative urban sample of fathers of preschoolers in Turkey (N =1,070). Different components of fatherhood involvement were assessed toproject three distinct paternal behavior dimensions as care, affection, andcontrol. Results: Father role satisfaction, psychological value attributed tothe child, and perceived family support were positively associated withinvolved fatherhood and higher parental warmth. Working hours per day wasnegatively associated with involved fatherhood, as expected. Higher lifesatisfaction was associated with higher positive parenting. Patriarchal viewsof masculinity were found to be the main predictor of parental physicalpunishment, controlling for all other predictors in the model. Conclusion:Study findings emphasized the importance of factors other than parentingskills that contribute to fathers’ parental effectiveness. Implications: Ourstudy’s findings have implications for family practices and policies. Forexample, besides parenting skills, father support programs should also focuson other factors such as developing awareness of traditional masculinitynorms and gender role prescriptions that can harm democratic familyenvironments and childcare practices.