May, I., Awad, S., May, M. S., & Ziegler, A. (2021). Parental stress provoked by short-term school closures during the second COVID-19 Lockdown. Journal of Family Issues, 0192513X211041987.

Governments of numerous countries implemented school closures to containthe COVID-19 pandemic. Several investigations have shown the negative impactof social-distancing policies and school closures on children worldwide.Recently, research also demonstrated adverse effects on adults’ well-being.The development of children is strongly affected by their parent’s emotionalstate. The present study aimed to examine parental stress levels caused by ashort period of homeschooling in December 2020 in Germany. A structuredsurvey was set up and distributed randomly via social media and parentassociations. We observed a significant increase in stress and concerns.Family conflicts significantly increased, social isolation was feared, andpowerlessness and helplessness ascended. Risk factors were parental educationlevels, parental working time, and teaching features like the frequency offeedback, correction, and accessibility.