Organizational Work-Life Policies and the Gender Wage Gap in European Workplaces. By: Van der Lippe, Tanja; Van Breeschoten, Leonie; and Van Hek, Margriet. 2019. Work and Occupations. Vol. 46 Issue 2, p111-148.

Many organizations in Europe offer work–life policies to enable men and women to combine work with family life. The authors argue that the availability of organizational work–life policies can also reduce gender inequality in wages. The authors test their expectations using the European Sustainable Workforce Survey, with data from 259 organizations and their employees in 9 European countries. Multilevel analyses show that organizations that offer work–life policies have a smaller gender wage gap. Their findings also suggest that both the type and number of policies matter. Contrary to their expectations, dependent care policies, such as parental leave and childcare support, are less important for the gender wage gap than flexibility policies. Controlling for organizational culture regarding family supportiveness does not alter the results.