Although ‘brain drain’ from emerging economies is a well-documented problem, research on how Human Resource Management (HRM) can potentially address it is still scarce. Based on Signaling Theory, we argue that developmental HRM practices in home countries reduce self-initiated expatriation (SIE) of young healthcare professionals by increasing their focus on opportunities in their home country. Additionally, we hypothesize that individual financial stability as a personal resource constitutes an important boundary condition, as developmental HRM’s positive effect on the focus on opportunities and its indirect negative effect on SIE intention may be even stronger for individuals with lower financial resources. We tested and found support for our hypotheses using a sample of 184 junior doctors in Lithuania in a time-lagged study. By bridging the HRM and SIE literature, our study extends the existing knowledge about the outcomes of HRM and highlights the importance of home country HRM in explaining SIE intention above and beyond its traditionally considered antecedents. In this way, our study has major theoretical and practical implications for decision-makers at organizational and national levels in managing brain drain from emerging economies.