"Living with Illegal Feelings"--Analysis of the Internet Discourse on Negative Emotions towards Children and Motherhood. By: Garncarek, Emilia. Qualitative Sociology Review. 1/31/2020, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p78-93. 16p.

The aim of the article is to show the socio-cultural conditions influencing the ways of expressing emotions and feelings by mothers. It presents the results of the analysis of the Internet discourse on negative attitudes towards motherhood and/or a child/children. The text is built on the author’s research on the issue of “regretting motherhood” and is based on a qualitative analysis of the content–blog entries/posts: nieperfekcyjnie.pl [notperfect.pl], matkawygodna.pl [slackermom. pl], mamwatpliwosc.pl [ihaveadoubt.pl], and in the group–Internet forum–Żałuję rodzicielstwa [I regret parenthood]. The theoretical basis were the concepts included in the sociology of symbolic interactionism. When is it Okay to be Alone? Gender Differences in Normative Beliefs about Social Withdrawal in Emerging Adulthood. By: Bowker, Julie C.; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.; Etkin, Rebecca G. Sex Roles. Apr2020, Vol. 82 Issue 7/8, p482-492. 11p. 2 Charts. Abstract: Informed by prior work on social withdrawal and gender role norms, the present study utilizes data from a large sample of U.S. (n = 656) and Canadian (n = 560) university students (Mage = 19.65 years) to test if the degree to which behaviors of social withdrawal are judged to be acceptable depends on (a) the motivation underlying the behavior (i.e., social withdrawal due to shyness versus unsociability versus avoidance or differences in withdrawal type) and (b) the gender of the actor (or the hypothetical person depicted as engaging in the behavior) and (c) the gender of the participant (or the observer). Results showed that participants were most accepting of unsociability, although perceptions differed somewhat according to the genders of the actor and the participant. For instance, participants were more accepting of shyness and avoidance in men but more accepting of unsociability in women. Findings have important implications for the refinement of theory and research because they highlight the need to more carefully consider the oftentimes neglected interface between social withdrawal and gender.