Bruns, A., & Pilkauskas, N. (2020). Juggling jobs and the kids: maternal multiple job holding and child behavior. Community, Work & Family, 1-19.

Many low-income women face precarious or low-quality employment, andstudies show that low-quality maternal employment is linked with pooreroutcomes for children. This study examines whether maternal multiple jobholding, an understudied facet of employment quality, is associated withchildren’s behavior in early childhood. Multiple job holding may affectparental time, well-being or income, all of which may influence childbehavior. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study(N=2013), a longitudinal birth cohort study of low-income families, thisstudy employs three methodological techniques – simple change, residualizedchange, and fixed effects models – to address selection bias and identifylower and upper bounds on the true association. Findings are suggestive of anassociation between maternal multiple job holding and child behaviorproblems, but the association is not robust across all methodologicalapproaches. Although mothers with multiple jobs work longer hours on averagethan mothers with one job, analyses suggest that long work hours do not drivethe observed associations between multiple job holding and child behavior.