Invisibility by Design: Women and Labor in Japan's Digital Economy. By: Morris, Jonathan. British Journal of Industrial Relations. Mar2021, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p246-247. 2p.

The context is young people joining a labour market made considerably more precarious by neo-liberalism and deregulation, an employment system where the former institutions are under pressure (the three treasures of lifetime employment, seniority-based wages and enterprise unionism), and Japan in the throes of a “long recession” dating back to the 1990s. Institutionally placed in the role of homemakers and mothers, Japanese females have long been locked-out of the core employment system, particularly lifetime employment, and confined, when they were not at home to fairly unskilled work in manufacturing, retail or other services or as “office ladies”, jobs that were always precarious to an extent, and which served as a buffer to protect male lifetime employment. These corporations are huge both in capitalisation and profits but not employees, as a consequence of expropriation of unpaid young female labour (who obviously are not counted as employees).