Mita Marra (2020) Intersectionality and emergence in time use analysis: possible pathways for gender research and work–family reconciliation policy in Italy, Community, Work & Family, 23:1, 80-106, DOI: 10.1080/13668803.2018.1462146

Tracking how time is shared between work and family has the potential to unearth implicit gender biases and empowerment processes as women mobilize hidden resources and become aware of their own agency and differences vis-à-vis social groups they belong to or are excluded from. Building upon a time use study of a sample of 100 women working within administrative agencies, firms and social coops within the Italian Mezzogiorno, I examine work–family reconciliation interfaces through the epistemological dimensions of intersectionality and reflexive emergence. I interpret time use findings intersectionally to identify those workers who are vulnerable to time poverty associated with different degrees of freedom and power. Through the lens of reflexive emergence, I seek to grasp the unpredictable, unique and oftentimes invisible empowerment situations women experience in balancing work responsibilities with family care. Intersectionality and reflexive emergence in time use analysis help design work–family reconciliation policies by targeting occupational measures and welfare provisions according to different beneficiaries’ needs in public agencies, private firms and non-profit work organizations.