Kitt, Adam, Sanders, Karin, "Imprinting in HR process research: a systematic review and integrative conceptual model," International Journal of Human Resource Management, Jun2024, Vol. 35 Issue 12, p2057-2100, 44p.

Human resource (HR) process research refers to the way HR practices are communicated in organisations, including the way these HR practices are understood (i.e. perceived HR strength) and attributed (i.e. HR attributions) by employees. Previous research has mainly focused on the outcomes of the HR process, while research that examines both antecedents and employee outcomes is relatively rare. This is especially the case for imprinting factors, defined as the hereditary and family-related influences, non-work contextual factors, and cultural values that may affect the way employees understand and attribute HR in their organisation. To further explore this relatively new area of research, this paper provides a systematic review of 19 empirical studies that investigate the role of imprinting factors in HR process research. Through the application of an imprinting framework with HR content and HR process theories, this review is orientated around the development of an integrative conceptual framework that elaborates on how, when, and to what degree imprinting factors influence the effect of bundles of HR practices on perceived HR strength and HR attributions and, as a consequence, employee outcomes. We conclude our review with several research directions that act as a platform for future scholarship.