Using 509 mother/father–child dyads drawn from Wave 8 of The German Family Panel (pairfam), this study examines the direct effects of mothers’ and fathers’ work–family conflict (WFC) on children’s internalizing (emotional) and externalizing (conduct) problem behaviors. We also test whether these effects are moderated by several child characteristics and family characteristics. Results suggest that both mothers’ and fathers’ WFC are associated with greater emotional problems, whereas only mothers’ WFC is associated with greater conduct problems. The detrimental effect of fathers’ (mothers’) WFC on emotional problems is stronger for older children and girls (households with a preschool-aged child and boys). While there is no direct effect of fathers’ WFC on conduct problems, results show that the detrimental effect of mothers’ WFC on conduct problems is stronger for boys, as well as in households with more children and those with a preschool-aged child.