Dill, J., & Tanem, J. (2022). Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Unionization in Direct Care Occupations. American journal of public health, 112(11), 1676-1684.

Objectives. The goal of this study was to measure unionization in thedirect care workforce and the relationship between unionization and earnings,looking closely at differences across race/ethnicity and gender. Methods.Using data from the Current Population Survey from 2010 to 2020, we firstused logit analyses to predict the probability of unionization among directcare workers across race/ethnicity and gender. We then measured therelationship between unionization and weekly earnings. Results. We found thatmale (12%) and Black (14%) direct care workers were most likely to beunionized, followed by Hispanic and other direct care workers of color.Unionized direct care workers earn wages that are about 7.8% higher thannonunionized workers, but unionized workers of color earn lower rewards forunionization compared with White direct care workers. Conclusions. Unions area mechanism for improving job quality in direct care work, and protectingworkers’ rights to unionize and participate in collective bargainingequitably may be a way to stabilize and grow the direct care workforce