Joo, M. K., Lee, J. Y., Kong, D. T., & Jolly, P. M. Gender diversity advantage at middle management: Implications for high performance work system improvement and organizational performance. Human Resource Management.

Research on women in leadership positions has largely focused on theboard or top management team (TMT) leadership level, showing that increasedfemale representation at these levels can benefit organizational performance.However, the strategic implications of female representation at middlemanagement have been largely neglected. The current study addresses thisissue in relation to High Performance Work System (HPWS) improvement andorganizational performance (profitability). By analyzing the multi‐wave(2009, 2011, and 2013) Workplace Panel Survey (WPS) data collected from 1101organizations in South Korea, we found a gender diversity advantage at middlemanagement; that is, a higher level of gender diversity of middle managementtranslated into a higher level of organizational performance due to HPWSimprovement. However, this advantage appeared only in the presence of a highlevel of subordinates’ gender diversity. Our findings have importantimplications for gender diversity and strategic human resource management.