Embracing Urbanity: Child Care Arrangements and Motherhood Anxiety in China's Urban Transition. By: Dai, Haijing. Journal of Family Issues. Dec2019, Vol. 40 Issue 17, p2389-2411. 23p.

“Urbanization of places” in China has produced a large group of landless farmers, who have never left their home villages but are compelled to adjust to an urban way of life. Using ethnographic data collected in three transitional communities, this study examines the transformation of child care arrangement patterns in the families of landless farmers during this transition. Generation-based child care arrangements, in which both paternal grandparents become primary caregivers of children, while their parents take up full employment in the city, have replaced the previous gender-based pattern. Although the new arrangements create challenges for the newly urbanized families, they are largely accepted by all family members because they are in line with the “urban” values of efficiency and survival. But these values still conflict with the ideals of urban motherhood, and this contradiction often leaves the mothers of young children feeling guilty and anxious. This study enriches the literature on family child care construction under structural changes and reflects on the meaning of urbanization in China.