Does Work–Family Conflict Vary According to Community Resources? By: Young, Marisa. Family Relations. Apr2019, Vol. 68 Issue 2, p197-212.

Abstract: Objective: To examine the gendered impact of community on work–family conflict (WFC) and whether respondents with young children benefit more from community resources compared with other residents. Background: Studies suggest that the gender gap in WFC is decreasing. Most attribute this trend to individual‐level antecedents of work and family. However, these explanations do not take into account important community‐level components—specifically, men’s and women’s differential access to and use of community resources. Method: Individual‐level data from 1,702 Canadians matched to census‐level data from the Canadian census were used, and hierarchical linear modeling techniques were employed. Results: Key findings were that women and parents with young children experience more conflict in less resourced communities, and collective efficacy affected men’s and women’s reports of WFC, but in opposite, nonlinear ways: At higher levels of collective efficacy, women reported heightened conflict. For men, this pressure was only felt when efficacy levels were high. Conclusion: There are important gender distinctions in reported WFC depending on one’s community resources. In some circumstances, these resources are more beneficial for women than men and matter differently for parents with young children compared with those without young children. Implications: These findings help inform community and policy‐based initiatives aimed at reducing residents’ experiences of WFC, underscoring the utility of promoting efficacious communities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1111/fare.12348. (AN: 135110840)