Do women perceive incivility from men as selective? Examining main effects, coping responses, and boundary conditions. By: Lopez‐Alvarez, Grisel; Cardador, M. Teresa and Restubog, Simon Lloyd D. 2024. Human Resource Management. Vol. 63 Issue 3, p517-532.

Women are more likely than men to be targets of incivility in the workplace. Scholars have referred to this pattern as selective incivility and suggest that incivility directed toward women—that is, selective incivility—is a form of modern sexism in the workplace. However, it remains unclear whether women themselves make sense of incivility from men as a form of gender bias, and when such perceptions shape whether women engage in unique responses to incivility perceived as selective. Drawing on social identity theory, we develop a conceptual model to better understand these relationships. Across two studies with working women, we show that women perceive male‐instigated incivility as selective. Further, our findings show that women are more likely to engage in problem‐focused‐responses (i.e., direct confrontation and formal reporting), rather than emotion‐focused responses (i.e., avoidance) in response to incivility perceived as selective and that these coping responses are, at times, moderated by the frequency of incivility. Overall, our research advances the literature on incivility, selective incivility, and gender bias at work, offers practical implications
for managers seeking to foster workplace inclusion, and suggests novel directions for future research.