Synowiec‐Piłat, M., Jędrzejek, M., & Zmyślona, B. (2022). Differences in leisure time across middle‐generation adults in Wroclaw, Poland: Examining the usefulness of the “sandwich generation” category. Family Relations.


Research objectives were (a) to determine the amount of leisure time available to middle-generation adults (35–54 years of age) and (b) to explore the relationship between leisure time and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, work status, marital status, and number of children).


An adequate amount of leisure time is an important lifestyle element, significantly determining overall health. Considerable leisure-time deficits currently observed in developed economies are related to significant change in intergenerational relations within families.


In 2018, a study was carried out on the population of adult inhabitants of Wroclaw, Poland (N = 898). The survey method was used based on an interview questionnaire as the research tool.


Half of the respondents declared less than 20 hours of leisure time per week. Deficits of leisure time affect mainly people aged 35 to 54 years, with women being more affected than men. Moreover, the amount of leisure time in the middle generation of Wroclaw inhabitants declines as people become more involved in their careers (a statistically significant relationship).


It seems reasonable to undertake and improve the analysis of leisure time in the context of the middle-generation adult who may be experiencing the sandwich generation phenomenon.


There is a need to implement social and health-oriented interventions to counteract leisure-time deficits among the middle generation, with a particular emphasis on the social situation of women.