Lennox, R., Herlihy, P., Sharar, D. & Robey, M. (2022). Construction and Validation of a Short Inclusion Scale. The Journal of Total Rewards.

Despite a substantial interest in the effects of diversity and inclusion in the workplace, little attention has been paid to the scientific assessment of inclusion at work. This study designed and validated a new eight-item inclusion scale for use in a diversity and inclusion Audit. Following the work of Person et al. (2018) and April and Blass (2010), we started with a multidimensional structure containing from eight to 10 sub-scales (factors) and used Person et al.’s Diversity Engagement Scale (DES) as a starting point for our tool. Since the DES was designed for use within a large teaching hospital, many of the items were not considered appropriate for a broad workplace population. After constructing a new questionnaire with eight factors built from two main studies, we collected 258 responses in a convenience sample to create a new inclusion scale. A principal components analysis of the dimensions showed there is only one component underlying the eights factors. This analysis allowed us to create an eight-item scale based on an effect indicator model (Bollen and Lennox 1991) to measure the entire inclusion construct with a single score. Correlations with the validity questions provided some limited support for construct validity for the total scale score. The results of the study provide sound empirical evidence that the construct can be reliably assessed (α =.91) using a short unidimensional measure. The Workplace Inclusion Scale (WIS) is offered as a tool to establish a systematic and rigorous basis for conducting diversity and inclusion audits for a wide range of corporate organizations.