Delanoeije, Joni. Verbruggen, Marijke, "Biophilia in the Home–Workplace: Integrating Dog Caregiving and Outdoor Access to Explain Teleworkers' Daily Physical Activity, Loneliness, and Job Performance," Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Jun2024, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p131-154

We examined whether dog caregiving and outdoor access affect the relationships between a teleworking day and teleworkers’ daily physical activity, loneliness, and job performance during the pandemic in two different seasons in 2021. Building on the biophilia hypothesis, we hypothesized that dog caregiving and outdoor access would attenuate the adverse effects of telework on our outcomes. We tested our cross-level moderation hypotheses in a Belgian daily diary data set combining two data collections during 10 workdays in two seasons: One in 284 teleworking employees in spring and one in 151 teleworking employees in autumn—of whom 75 also participated in spring (Npersons = 360, Ndatapoints = 3,809). Consistent with our hypotheses, mixed coefficient modeling showed two-way interactions between teleworking day and dog caregiving, and between teleworking day and outdoor access on daily physical activity, daily loneliness, and daily job performance. Specifically, both dog caregiving and outdoor access buffered against the harmful effects of a teleworking day on these three outcomes: On teleworking days compared to nonteleworking days, there was a smaller decrease in physical activity and in job performance for employees who had a dog or who had outdoor access compared to employees who did not. Likewise, dog caregiving and outdoor access buffered against an increase in loneliness on teleworking days, with a less steep increase for employees with a dog or outdoor access. Our study shows the importance of contextualizing the home context more broadly by including dogs and outdoor access at home when considering the effects of telework during and after the pandemic.