Wayne, J. H., Michel, J. S., & Matthews, R. A. (2022). Balancing work and family: A theoretical explanation and longitudinal examination of its relation to spillover and role functioning. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0001007

We take a temporally dynamic perspective to present a model that explains the relations among work–family spillover (conflict and enrichment), work–family balance, and role satisfaction and performance over time. We posit that these relationships differ for two primary conceptualizations, balance satisfaction and effectiveness. We collect data using two samples, each with three time points. In Study 1 (N = 681), we test our hypotheses for balance satisfaction. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that bidirectional enrichment predicted subsequent job and family satisfaction, and in turn, balance satisfaction. Thus, enrichment appears to primarily initiate the balance satisfaction process as it unfolds over time. Contrary to common theoretical and practical assumptions, role satisfaction seems to drive balance satisfaction rather than the other way around. In Study 2 (N = 493), we test our hypotheses for balance satisfaction and balance effectiveness. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that conflict primarily initiated the balance effectiveness process where role performance and balance effectiveness operated in feedback cycles of mutual influence over time. Posthoc model tests are consistent with Study 1 in that work-to-family enrichment predicted job satisfaction and in turn, balance satisfaction. Collectively, these studies suggest that the processes involving balance satisfaction versus balance effectiveness have different primary originating factors (enrichment or conflict, respectfully) and different temporal sequencing with role satisfaction and performance (unidirectional vs. reciprocal, respectively), warranting distinct theoretical explanations. This program of research represents a comprehensive, theoretical explanation and temporal examination of work–family balance, setting the stage for a new phase of research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)