Adler, M. A. (2023). Active Fathers in the United States: Caught Between De-Gendering Care and Caring Masculinities. Journal of Family Issues, 44(5), 1177-1196.

The United States occupies a unique position among OECD countries becausethe US provides little policy support for working parents. Despite theresulting extreme time scarcity, US fathers perform similar amounts of childcare as European fathers under more family-friendly policy conditions. Usingrecent national time use survey data, this paper examines whether timescarcity among American working parents, coupled with limited access toaffordable child care and traditional masculine identity ideas, is associatedwith American fathers’ involvement in the daily care of their young children.Results show that fathers do one third of all care activities, contribute onethird of the care time, and perform over one half of the 10 activitiesanalyzed here daily. Multivariate analysis indicates that time scarcity, lackof alternative child care options, and traditional masculine identity affectthe degree of fathers’ involvement in daily care activities with their underfive year olds. Implications for the development of caring masculinities arediscussed.