“Treating outcomes of social capital as its indicator will necessarily find social capital to be related to those outcomes.” (Edwards)
“… logical circularity. As a propensity of communities and nations rather than individuals, social capital is simultaneously a cause and an effect. It leads to positive outcomes, such as economic development and less crime, and its existence is inferred from the same outcomes.” (Portes, 1998)

Edwards, R. (2002, October 18). Social Capital, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College. As defined by Edwards citing: Durlauf, S.N. (1999) The case "against" social capital. Focus, 20(3), p. 1-5. Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), p. 1-24.