“Presenteeism is defined as lost productivity that occurs when employees come to work but perform below par due to any kind of illness. While the costs associated with the absenteeism of employees has been long studied, the costs of presenteeism is newly being studied.” (Levin-Epstein, 2005)
“Presenteeism is a new term used by human resource professionals to describe circumstances in which employees come to work even though they are ill, posing potential problems of contagion and lower productivity” (CCH Incorporated, 2003).

Levin-Epstein, J. (2005). Presenteeism and paid sick days. Washington, D.C.: CLASP Center for Law and Social Policy. Retrieved November 15, 2005, from CCH Incorporated (2003). “Unscheduled Employee Absenteeism Hits Lowest Point in CCH Survey History.” Human Resources Management and Trends, Special Issue 569 (October), 155-164.