“Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to, scratching; pushing; shoving; throwing; grabbing; biting; choking; shaking; slapping; punching; burning; use of a weapon; and use of restraints or one’s body, size, or strength against another person” (CDC, 2007).

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intimate partner violence: Overview. Retrieved on June 28, 2007, from: