“…nonstandard is often defined as either part-time work, temporary and on-call work, contract work, and self-employment (e.g. Kalleberg, et al., 1997), ignoring shift work entirely…I define persons as working nonstandard hours when they work other than fixed-day schedules in the previous week” (Presser, 2003, p. 414, p. 416).

Presser, H.B. (2003, November). Race-ethnic and gender differences in nonstandard work shifts. Work and Occupations, 30(4), 412 - 439.