“Only a generation ago, the advertisement sections of newspapers listed job openings under one of two columns, “Help Wanted-Male” or “Help Wanted-Female.” While this practice is illegal now, jobs within organizations are still “gendered,” meaning that some jobs are “appropriate” for women and others are “appropriate” for men (Acker, 1990; Bartol, 1978). For example, fixing cars or selling golf clubs are “appropriate” jobs for a man, while providing childcare or selling earrings are jobs done by women (Gutek, 1995). This does not mean that men and women are excluded from sex-atypical jobs, but that encounters with individuals in sex-atypical jobs cause some discomfort for the firm’s clients and its workforce (Williams, 1992).” (Maum & Houston, 2001, p. 172-173)”Ample research has shown that job segregation perpetuates sex and racial inequality. Women and minorities are more likely to hold low-level and undervalued jobs that provide limited exposure to career resources such as strategic social ties and prestigious job assignments (Acker 1990; Blair-Loy 2001; Burt 1998; Kanter 1977; Knoke and Ishio 1998; Reskin 1993; Reskin and Cassirer 1996). Segregated jobs thus act as ‘glass cages’ that isolate women and minorities and constrain their career opportunities.” (Kalev, 2004) “Employment in Britain is segregated by gender, both horizontally and vertically. That is to say, women tend to be in different jobs or occupations to those of men (horizontal segregation) and within a particular occupation tend to hold the lower status and lower rewarded positions (vertical segregation). Women workers are heavily concentrated in relatively few occupations, frequently those with a large demand for part-time workers.” (EuroFound, 2007)

Maum, D.J. & Houston, P. (2001). Job segregation and gender differences in work-family spillover among white-collar workers. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), 171-189. Kalev, A. (2004). Cracking the Glass Cages? Re-organization of Work and the Sex and Racial Diversity of Management. Working Paper, Princeton University Department of Sociology. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2007). Job segregation. Retrieved January 29, 2007, from