The human-cost approach [of measuring organizational outcomes], adopted by authors such as Konrad & Mangel, 2000 and Kossek & Grace, 1990, focuses on the savings associated with reduced labor costs (for example, as indicated by: absenteeism, turnover, productivity) that result from employer-supports” (Lobel, 2003).

Lobel, S. (2003). Measurement of organizational outcomes, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from the Sloan Work and Family Reseach Network web site: