“Formal volunteering is assistance provided through organizations, either mutual-benefit associations in which the beneficiary is the membership (e.g., professional and union groups) or community-oriented service organizations that benefit clients or others outside the organization (e.g., church-related or fraternal organizations) (Janoski & Wilson, 1995).” (Voydanoff, 2002)

Voydanoff, P. (2002). Community as a context for the work-family interface: A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from