Another related concept, which is under development in the European literature in particular, is that of the “fatherhood regime”, in order to help us to understand why fatherhood is configured in different ways cross-nationally. Hobson and Martin (2002)…have explicitly sought to extend the concept of “gender regime” to fathers by conceptualising the “fatherhood regime” as the fatherhood obligations (notably to support children financially after divorce) and rights (concerning the work-family balance and access to children after divorce) provided within a nation’s institutional framework… The explanatory power of the welfare regime typology was not born out by this analysis, leading the authors to attribute national differences in fatherhood regimes to “multifarious social, political, economic and cultural sources”. More recently, Gregory and Milner (2004) have conceptualised the “fatherhood regime” along three vectors: the specific rights and obligations placed on fathers by the state, state family and employment policy and the national working time regime.” (Gregory & Milner, 2005)

Gregory, A. & Milner, S. (2005). Fatherhood: Comparative Western perspectives, a Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia entry. Retrieved March 30, 2007, from