“This term, which is very similar to the “glass ceiling,” is defined as those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management level positions. “Concrete ceiling” not only restricts access to top-level positions but middle management positions. It is denser and not as easily shattered. The glass ceiling is identified primarily as a women’s issue; however, evidence shows that minorities are faced with insurmountable barriers as they attempt to move upward (U. S. Department of Labor, 1997). In spite of laws and policies that have opened doors for women and people of color, an invisible barrier still remains (Ayman, 1997).” (Moore & Jones, 2001)

Moore, M. & Jones, J. (2001). Cracking the concrete ceiling: Inquiry into the aspirations, values, motives, and actions of African American female 1890 cooperative extension administrators. Journal of Extension, 39(6). Retrieved January 29, 2007, from