“Within the general meaning of boundaryless careers—as being the opposite of organizational careers—lie several specific meanings, or emphases. The most prominant of these is a case where a career, like the stereotypical Silicon Valley career, moves across the boundaries of separate employers. A second meaning occurs when a career, like that of an academic or a carpenter, draws validation—and marketability—from outside the present employer. A third meaning is involved when a career, like that of a real-estate agent, is sustained by external networks or information. A fourth meaning occurs when traditional organizational career boundaries, notably those involving hierarchical reporting and advancement principles, are broken. A fifth meaning occurs when a person rejects existing career opportunities for personal or family reasons. A sixth meaning depends on on the interpretation of the career actor, who may perceive a boundaryless future regardless of structural constraints. A common factor in the occurance of all these meanings is one of independence from, rather than dependence on, traditional organizational career arrangements.” (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996, p. 6)

Arthur, M.B. & Rousseau, D.M. (1996). The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. New York: Oxford University Press.