“Jobs that typically have low salaries, limited or no career advancement opportunities, and few, if any, benefits” (Barnett, 2003).
“Secondary part-time jobs: Workers have low skill and compensation compared to their full-time counterparts, and [have] little prospect of advancement” (Tilly, 1992).

Barnett, R. (2003, January 28). Reduced hours work/part-time work, A Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia Entry. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College. Tilly, C. (1992). Two faces of part time work: Good and bad part time jobs in U.S. service industries. In B. D. Warme, K. L. P. Lundy & L. A. Lundy (Eds.). Part time work: Opportunity or dead end? (pp. 227-238). New York: Praeger.