After-school programs include a variety of activities that take place in the school building such as clubs, homework hall, and enrichment activities.  Formal after-school programs can also take place outside of the school setting, both in neighborhoods and in communities (Barnett & Gareis, 2006).

Barnett, R.C., & Gareis, K.C. (2006). Antecedents and correlates of parental after-school concern: Exploring a newly identified work-family stressor. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 1382-1399.